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The clay pipe industry expanded rapidly as tobacco smoking gained popularity in both England and America. Historical archeologists excavating English colonial sites often find pieces of white clay smoking pipes on their sites. In the s J. Harrington studied the thousands of pipe stems excavated at Jamestown and other colonial Virginia sites, noticing a definite relationship between the diameter of the pipe stem bore-or hole-and the age of the pipe of which it had been part. This change in diameter may have occurred because pipe stems became longer through time, requiring a smaller bore.

In broad terms there were always two different styles of pipe in contemporary use; those with heels and those with spurs.

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A heel is the term used for a flat-based projection underneath the bowl of a pipe, which typically has near vertical sides, or ones that flare out towards its base. A heel is usually broader than it is deep, as opposed to a spur, which is the opposite.

A spur is the term used for a projection underneath the bowl that is usually longer than it is broad.

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It typically tapers to a pointed or rounded base, although later varieties sometimes have the end trimmed off. Pipes without a heel or spur were produced for the export trade from the mid-seventeenth century onwards but only came into general use in Britain from the mid-nineteenth century onwards. Diagram showing the most commonly used terminology for different parts of the pipe.

Pipe Dimensions & Specifications Mission Clay Products Band-Seal Mainline Vitrified Clay Pipe and Couplings meet or exceed the following standards: ASTM C and ASTM C which supersede Federal specifications SS-Pe and SS-Pb SSPWC, Standard Specifications for Public Works Construction, also known as "Greenbook" International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical . Clay pipe has been used in the construction of combined sewers, storm sewers and sanitary sewers in American cities since the early 's. Much of the early pipe was terra cotta and should not be confused with today's vitrified clay pipe. Vitrification is a critical difference. Jun 27,   As a result of their work, clay pipes have become perhaps the most useful tool for dating and interpreting archaeological deposits dating from the late sixteenth century onwards. With the continued growth of interest in all facets of our recent archaeological past (historical, industrial, colonial, military, etc.), pipes have retained their.

Drawn by D. Heel forms were the earliest style to be introduced in the late sixteenth century and remained the dominant form in most areas for at least the next century. Spur forms first appear in the very early seventeenth century and soon became an alternative style used in lesser numbers in most areas of the country.

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During the seventeenth century both types generally had rather squat barrel-shaped forms and they almost always have a band of milling at the rim.

Seventeenth century bowls tend to tip forward slightly and had quite thick walls.

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Burnishing was used for better qualities of pipes and almost without exception pipes had bottered rims i. The bowl forms stayed quite similar but increased in size during the course of the century as tobacco became cheaper and more readily available and the quantity consumed at any one time increased.

This is why the size of the bowl for is very important during this period and it is essential to compare the forms with a life size typology.

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The bowl walls became correspondingly thinner and the use of rim milling stopped around in the south, but lingered on until around in the midlands and north; its use appears to have been associated with specific bowl styles and it was phased out as new styles emerged. Regional variations are particularly strong during this period and some areas switched preference between heel and spur pipes or vice versa during this period.

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For much of the eighteenth century pipe bowls were generally upright and with fairly cylindrical bowl forms e. Regional variation continues to be quite marked with burnishing persisting in some regions but not others.

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Rim milling dies out almost completely after aboutas does the practice of rim bottering. Bowl forms become quite large with thin walls and relatively tall bowls.

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Regional variation becomes less marked and similar forms were used for long-stemmed pipes across the country. These long pipes continued in use right through into the twentieth century, but in decreasing numbers as a plethora of new shapes and styles came into fashion from around The new decorative styles of short-stemmed pipe are hard to categorise into meaningful typologies but should be easily distinguishable from the earlier forms e.

Pipe stem dating The clay pipe industry expanded rapidly as tobacco smoking gained popularity in both England and America. Historical archeologists excavating English colonial sites often find pieces of white clay smoking pipes on their sites. Hole sizes in Pipe Stems - A way of dating? English Pipes: , , In the archaeological studies carried out on clay pipes (and believe me there are many!) mathematical formula's have been applied to explore the possibilities of dating them by the size of the hole in the stem. Many clay pipes have a maker's mark on them and these can not only provide an accurate date for the manufacture of the pipe but also an origin for it. Before the establishment of the railways in the mid-nineteenth century most pipes were produced in small family run workshops and generally only traded around miles from their place of.

Bowl forms can be dated by reference to national and local typologies, links to which can be found below. It is important to print these out at life size check the bar scale when printed before comparing pipes with them, since size can be crucial, especially for seventeenth century forms.

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The London typology is still one of the most useful because of the clean, accurately drawn forms and the widespread influence of London styles.

It can be used for many areas of the country, in conjunction with more local typologies, where these exist.

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The general and regional typologies produced by Oswald suffer from the poor quality of the form drawings, although the underlying dating is still sound. Regional typologies are useful if they exist for the study area, but can be variable in terms of the quality of the bowl form drawings and accuracy of the dates attributed to them.

It is important to display or print these at life size when comparing new material, since size is often an important factor in determining the date. Full Guidelines.

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Seventeenth and early eighteenth-century stems showing bands of milling 1 and 'barley twist' decoration 2 and 3. Photo D.

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The clay pipe industry expanded rapidly as tobacco smoking gained popularity in both England and America. Historical archeologists excavating English colonial sites often find pieces of white clay smoking pipes on their sites. In the s J.

Hole sizes in Pipe Stems - A way of dating? By Heather Coleman. In the archaeological studies carried out on clay pipes (and believe me there are many!) mathematical formula's have been applied to explore the possibilities of dating them by the size of the hole in the stem. In my experience as a clay pipe maker of replica's for all periods. Jan 25,   Clay pipe bowls can be dated with some certainty according to their shape, size and decoration, and with even more accuracy if they feature a maker's-mark on the 'heel', the protrusion under the bowl. The top pipe bowl above dates from while the one below is a fairly typical decorated one from he dating of a pipe fragment relies on assessing a whole range of variables to do with its fabric, manufacturing techniques, bowl form, style, finish, marks and decoration. The skill and experience of the individual undertaking the work will play a large part in determining how accurate and reliable any assessment of dating is, and specialist.

Harrington studied the thousands of pipe stems excavated at Jamestown and other colonial Virginia sites, noticing a definite relationship between the diameter of the pipe stem bore-or hole-and the age of the pipe of which it had been part. This change in diameter may have occurred because pipe stems became longer through time, requiring a smaller bore. Louis Binford later devised a mathematical formula to refine Harrington's method Deetz This dating technique only applies to pipe stems manufactured in England between approximately and Historical archeologists do not rely on pipe stem fragments as the only source for determining a site's history.

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They also consider historical documents and other material culture recovered from the site-such as ceramics, glass, metal artifacts, faunal and botanical samples, and features-to determine its occupation and use. Parts of clay smoking pipes.

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Heather Hembrey, University of Maryland. You have recovered sixty-three pipe stem fragments from Verysignificantsite.

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You wish to analyze these pipe stems to determine when your site was most heavily occupied. According to J.

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Harrington's initial studies, the time periods and average bore diameters are as follows Deetz :. You have measured the pipe stem bores from your site and find the following distribution:. Look at the number of stems you recovered and determine which bore diameter is represented by the most pipe stems. Match the most frequently occurring diameter with Harrington's bore diameter chart above.



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