First Ladies Garden: Honoring the past, beautifying the present and planting seeds for the future. Think about those who encouraged you to come to Harding and thank them by passing it on to the next generation. Your example and encouragement may be what a student needs to make their college decision and transform their life. Send your name, address, class year, maiden name if applicable , phone number and any information to alumni harding. Alumni ates If you have moved, changed jobs, been promoted, married, had a child, been honored, etc. Nominate an Alum We would like to give you the opportunity to nominate individuals for consideration as Distinguished Alumnus or Alumna Award. Harding is dedicated to preparing itself for the next century so that every student - every future generation - will receive the blessing of a solid, Christian college experience.
At Harding, chapel is an important and cherished tradition, dating back to that first semester in Today chapel is still where you hear the heartbeat of this university. Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, - August 2, ) was the 29th president of the United States from until his death in A member of the Republican Party, he was one of the most popular U.S. presidents to that middleburyfloralvt.com his death, a number of scandals-including Teapot Dome-came to light, as did his extramarital affair with Nan Britton; each eroded his popular regard. Harding is a private Christian university offering undergraduate, graduate and pre-professional programs, with international opportunities that span the globe.
Senate, the Democrats controlled both houses of Congress, and were led by President Wilson. As a junior senator in the minority, Harding received unimportant committee assignments, but carried out those duties assiduously.
On two issues, women's suffrage, and the prohibition of alcohol, where picking the wrong side would have damaged his presidential prospects inhe prospered by taking nuanced positions. As senator-elect, he indicated that he could not support votes for women until Ohio did. Increased support for suffrage there and among Senate Republicans meant that by the time Congress voted on the issue, Harding was a firm supporter.
Harding, who drank,  initially voted against banning alcohol. He voted for the Eighteenth Amendmentwhich imposed Prohibitionafter successfully moving to modify it by placing a time limit on ratification, which was expected to kill it. Once it was ratified anyway, Harding voted to override Wilson's veto of the Volstead Billwhich implemented the amendment, assuring the support of the Anti-Saloon League. Harding, as a politician respected by both Republicans and Progressives, was asked to be temporary chairman of the Republican National Convention and to deliver the keynote address.
He urged delegates to stand as a united party. The convention nominated Justice Charles Evans Hughes. In the November presidential electiondespite increasing Republican unity, Hughes was narrowly defeated by Wilson. Harding spoke and voted in favor of the resolution of war requested by Wilson in April that plunged the United States into World War I.
In MayHarding, less enthusiastic about Wilson, opposed a bill to expand the president's powers. In the midterm congressional elections, held just before the armistice, Republicans narrowly took control of the Senate. Many senators disliked Article X of the League Covenantthat committed signatories to the defense of any member nation that was attacked, seeing it as forcing the United States to war without the assent of Congress.
Harding was one of 39 senators who signed a round-robin letter opposing the League. When Wilson invited the Foreign Relations Committee to the White House to informally discuss the treaty, Harding ably questioned Wilson about Article X; the president evaded his inquiries. The Senate debated Versailles in Septemberand Harding made a major speech against it. By then, Wilson had suffered a stroke while on a speaking tour.
With an incapacitated president in the White House and less support in the country, the treaty was defeated.
Harding University Registrar's Office Box Searcy, AR or fax to Meet our Staff. Joanna Dawson ('97) Crisco, Office Manager and Ticket Manager. Our goal is to assist students as a part of the University's mission to promote student success in all areas of life. Help or information regarding any of your concerns is available at [email protected], , or located in McInteer Harding University is a private Christian university with its main campus in Searcy, middleburyfloralvt.com is the largest private university in middleburyfloralvt.comished in , the university offers undergraduate, graduate, and pre-professional middleburyfloralvt.com university also comprises Harding School of Theology, located in Memphis, Tennessee, which was formerly known as Harding Graduate School of middleburyfloralvt.com: Suburban, acres ( ha).
With most Progressives having rejoined the Republican Party, their former leader, Theodore Roosevelt, was deemed likely to make a third run for the White House inand was the overwhelming favorite for the Republican nomination. These plans ended when Roosevelt suddenly died on January 6, Harding, while he wanted to be president, was as much motivated in entering the race by his desire to keep control of Ohio Republican politics, enabling his re-election to the Senate in Among those coveting Harding's seat were former governor Willis he had been defeated by James M.
On December 17,Harding made a low-key announcement of his presidential candidacy. Harding was far more acceptable to the "Old Guard" leaders of the party. Daugherty, who became Harding's campaign manager, was sure none of the other candidates could garner a majority. His strategy was to make Harding an acceptable choice to delegates once the leaders faltered. Daugherty established a Harding for president campaign office in Washington run by his confidant, Jess Smithand worked to manage a network of Harding friends and supporters, including Frank Scobey of Texas clerk of the Ohio State Senate during Harding's years there.
Despite the candidate's work, according to Russell, "without Daugherty's Mephistophelean efforts, Harding would never have stumbled forward to the nomination.
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Warren G. There were only 16 presidential primary states inof which the most crucial to Harding was Ohio. Harding had to have some loyalists at the convention to have any chance of nomination, and the Wood campaign hoped to knock Harding out of the race by taking Ohio. Wood campaigned in the state, and his supporter, Procter, spent large sums; Harding spoke in the non-confrontational style he had adopted in Harding and Daugherty were so confident of sweeping Ohio's 48 delegates that the candidate went on to the next state, Indiana, before the April 27 Ohio primary.
In Indiana, Harding finished fourth, with less than ten percent of the vote, and failed to win a single delegate. He was willing to give up and have Daugherty file his re-election papers for the Senate, but Florence Harding grabbed the phone from his hand, "Warren Harding, what are you doing? Give up? Not until the convention is over. Think of your friends in Ohio! After he recovered from the shock of the poor results, Harding traveled to Boston, where he delivered a speech that according to Dean, "would resonate throughout the campaign and history.
The Republican National Convention opened at the Chicago Coliseum on June 8,assembling delegates who were bitterly divided, most recently over the results of a Senate investigation into campaign spending, which had just been released. Johnson was deemed to be behind the inquiry, and the rage of the Lowden and Wood factions put an end to any possible compromise among the frontrunners.
Of the almost 1, delegates, 27 were women-the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitutionguaranteeing women the vote, was within one state of ratification, and would pass before the end of August. Reporters deemed Harding unlikely to be nominated due to his poor showing in the primaries, and relegated him to a place among the dark horses. After the convention dealt with other matters, the nominations for president opened on the morning of Friday, June Harding had asked Willis to place his name in nomination, and the former governor responded with a speech popular among the delegates, both for its folksiness and for its brevity in the intense Chicago heat.
Harry M. Daugherty . Four ballots were taken on the afternoon of June 11, and they revealed a deadlock. The night of June, would become famous in political history as the night of the " smoke-filled room ," in which, legend has it, party elders agreed to force the convention to nominate Harding. Historians have focused on the talks held in the suite of Republican National Committee RNC Chairman Will Hays at the Blackstone Hotelat which senators and others came and went, and numerous possible candidates were discussed.
Utah Senator Reed Smootbefore his departure early in the evening, backed Harding, telling Hays and the others that as the Democrats were likely to nominate Governor Cox, they should pick Harding to win Ohio.
Smoot also told The New York Times that there had been an agreement to nominate Harding, but that it would not be done for several ballots yet. Two other participants in the smoke-filled room discussions, Kansas Senator Charles Curtis and Colonel George Brinton McClellan Harveya close friend of Hays, predicted to the press that Harding would be nominated because of the liabilities of the other candidates.
Colonel Harvey's account of the smoke-filled room had Harding being sent for in the early morning hours, to be informed by Harvey that the Ohioan would be the candidate.
Harvey stated he asked if there was anything in Harding's background that might harm his candidacy, to which the senator, who had had at least one extramarital affair, replied there was not.
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Harding biographer Charles W. Murray noted that there is no evidence besides Harvey's word that Harding went to the Hays suite that night, and that other participants denied that Harding was there. The reassembled delegates had heard rumors that Harding was the choice of a cabal of senators. Although this was not true, delegates believed it, and sought a way out by voting for Harding.
Lodge then declared a three-hour recess, to the outrage of Daugherty, who raced to the podium, and confronted him, "You cannot defeat this man this way!
The motion was not carried! You cannot defeat this man! The nomination was made unanimous. The delegates, desperate to leave town before they incurred more hotel expenses, then proceeded to the vice presidential nomination. Harding wanted Senator Irvine Lenroot of Wisconsin, who was unwilling to run, but before Lenroot's name could be withdrawn and another candidate decided on, an Oregon delegate proposed Governor Coolidge, which was met with a roar of approval from the delegates.
Coolidge, popular for his role in breaking the Boston police strike ofwas nominated for vice president, receiving two and a fraction votes more than Harding had. On such things, Rollo, turns the destiny of nations. The New York World found Harding the least-qualified candidate since James Buchanandeeming the Ohio senator a "weak and mediocre" man who "never had an original idea.
The Democratic National Convention opened in San Francisco on June 28,under a shadow cast by Woodrow Wilson, who wished to be nominated for a third term. Delegates were convinced Wilson's health would not permit him to serve, and looked elsewhere for a candidate.
Former Treasury Secretary William G. McAdoo was a major contender, but he was Wilson's son-in-law, and refused to consider a nomination so long as the president wanted it. Mitchell Palmer. As Cox was, when not in politics, a newspaper owner and editor, this placed two Ohio editors against each other for the presidency, and some complained there was no real political choice. Both Cox and Harding were economic conservatives, and were reluctant progressives at best.
Harding elected to conduct a front porch campaignlike McKinley in In the meantime, Cox and Roosevelt stumped the nation, giving hundreds of speeches.
Coolidge spoke in the Northeast, later on in the South, and was not a significant factor in the election.
In Marion, Harding ran his campaign. As a newspaperman himself, he fell into easy camaraderie with the press covering him, enjoying a relationship few presidents have equaled. His " return to normalcy " theme was aided by the atmosphere that Marion provided, an orderly place that induced nostalgia in many voters. The front porch campaign allowed Harding to avoid mistakes, and as time dwindled towards the election, his strength grew. The travels of the Democratic candidates eventually caused Harding to make several short speaking tours, but for the most part, he remained in Marion.
America had no need for another Wilson, Harding argued, appealing for a president "near the normal. Harding's vague oratory irritated some; McAdoo described a typical Harding speech as "an army of pompous phrases moving over the landscape in search of an idea.
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Sometimes these meandering words actually capture a straggling thought and bear it triumphantly, a prisoner in their midst, until it died of servitude and over work. Mencken concurred, "it reminds me of a string of wet sponges, it reminds me of tattered washing on the line; it reminds me of stale bean soup, of college yells, of dogs barking idiotically through endless nights. It is so bad that a kind of grandeur creeps into it. It drags itself out of the dark abysm It is rumble and bumble.
It is balder and dash. Wilson had stated that the election would be a "great and solemn referendum" on the League of Nations, making it difficult for Cox to maneuver on the issue-although Roosevelt strongly supported the League, Cox was less enthusiastic.
This was general enough to satisfy most Republicans, and only a few bolted the party over this issue. By October, Cox had realized there was widespread public opposition to Article X, and stated that reservations to the treaty might be necessary; this shift allowed Harding to say no more on the subject. The RNC hired Albert Laskeran advertising executive from Chicago, to publicize Harding, and Lasker unleashed a broad-based advertising campaign that used many now-standard advertising techniques for the first time in a presidential campaign.
Lasker's approach included newsreels and sound recordings. Visitors to Marion had their photographs taken with Senator and Mrs.
Harding, and copies were sent to their hometown newspapers. Telemarketers were used to make phone calls with scripted dialogues to promote Harding.
During the campaign, opponents spread old rumors that Harding's great-great-grandfather was a West Indian black person and that other blacks might be found in his family tree.
Wooster College professor William Estabrook Chancellor publicized the rumors, based on supposed family research, but perhaps reflecting no more than local gossip.
By Election Day, November 2,few had any doubts that the Republican ticket would win. The Republicans greatly increased their majority in each house of Congress. Harding was sworn in March 4,in the presence of his wife and father. Harding preferred a low-key inauguration, without the customary parade, leaving only the swearing-in ceremony and a brief reception at the White House.
In his inaugural address he declared, "Our most dangerous tendency is to expect too much from the government and at the same time do too little for it. After the election, Harding had announced he was going on vacation, and that no decisions about appointments would be made until he returned to Marion in December.
He went to Texas, where he fished and played golf with his friend Frank Scobey soon to be Director of the Mintthen took ship for the Panama Canal Zone.
He went to Washington, where he was given a hero's welcome [e] when Congress opened in early December as the first sitting senator to be elected to the White House. Back in Ohio, he planned to consult the "best minds" of the country on appointments, and they dutifully journeyed to Marion to offer their counsel.
After Charles G. Mellonone of the richest people in the country; he agreed. The two Harding cabinet appointees who darkened the reputation of his administration for their involvement in scandal were Harding's Senate friend, Albert B.
Fall was a Western rancher and former miner, and was pro-development. Trani and David L. Wilson, in their volume on Harding's presidency, suggest that the appointment made sense then, since Daugherty was "a competent lawyer well-acquainted with the seamy side of politics Harding made it clear when he appointed Hughes as Secretary of State that the former justice would run foreign policy, a change from Wilson's close management of international affairs.
With the Treaty of Versailles unratified by the Senate, the U. Peacemaking began with the Knox-Porter Resolutiondeclaring the U. Treaties with GermanyAustria and Hungaryeach containing many of the non-League provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, were ratified in This still left the question of relations between the U.
Harding Univ. is a Christian Liberal Arts university with one of the most beautiful campuses in the nation. Its professors and administrators really care about the students, school spirit is very high, and a true Christian lifestyle is encouraged.5/5(45). Kevin Kehl, Ed.D. Dean, University College [email protected] Caitlin Denton Assistant Director of First Year Students and Students in Transition [email protected] Abbey Watson Communications and Events Coordinator, University College [email protected] Tannon Davis, MBA Director, University Studies [email protected] Butch Gardner, Ed.D. Director, Career Services [email protected] A message from the office of Undergraduate Admissions: Harding University is committed to the health and safety of our students and employees and the communities where we operate, thus due to the increasing concerns related to COVID, Harding University has suspended on-campus classes and is conducting online coursework delivery for the remainder of the Spring semester.
Hughes' State Department initially ignored communications from the League, or tried to bypass it through direct communications with member nations. Bythough, the U. By the time Harding took office, there were calls from foreign governments for reduction of the massive war debt owed to the United States, and the German government sought to reduce the reparations that it was required to pay.
The U. Harding sought passage of a plan proposed by Mellon to give the administration broad authority to reduce war debts in negotiation, but Congress, inpassed a more restrictive bill. Hughes negotiated an agreement for Britain to pay off its war debt over 62 years at low interest, effectively reducing the present value of the obligations. This agreement, approved by Congress inset a pattern for negotiations with other nations. Talks with Germany on reduction of reparations payments would result in the Dawes Plan of A pressing issue not resolved by Wilson was the question of policy towards Bolshevik Russia.
Under Harding, Commerce Secretary Hoover, with considerable experience of Russian affairs, took the lead on policy. When famine struck Russia inHoover had the American Relief Administrationwhich he had headed, negotiate with the Russians to provide aid. Soviet leaders the U. Hoover supported trade with the Soviets, fearing U.
Harding had urged disarmament and lower defense costs during the campaign, but it had not been a major issue. He gave a speech to a joint session of Congress in Aprilsetting out his legislative priorities.
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Among the few foreign policy matters he mentioned was disarmament, with the president stating that the government could not "be unmindful of the call for reduced expenditure" on defense. Idaho Senator William Borah had proposed a conference at which the major naval powers, the U. Harding concurred, and after some diplomatic discussions, representatives of nine nations convened in Washington in November Most of the diplomats first attended Armistice Day ceremonies at Arlington National Cemeterywhere Harding spoke at the entombment of the Unknown Soldier of World War Iwhose identity, "took flight with his imperishable soul.
We know not whence he came, only that his death marks him with the everlasting glory of an American dying for his country". Hughes, in his speech at the opening session of the conference on November 12,made the American proposal-the U.
The naval agreement was limited to battleships and to some extent aircraft carriers, and in the end did not prevent rearmament. Nevertheless, Harding and Hughes were widely applauded in the press for their work.
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Congress had authorized their disposal inbut the Senate would not confirm Wilson's nominees to the Shipping Board. Harding appointed Albert Lasker as its chairman; the advertising executive undertook to run the fleet as profitably as possible until it could be sold. Most ships proved impossible to sell at anything approaching the government's cost.
Lasker recommended a large subsidy to the merchant marine to enable the sales, and Harding repeatedly urged Congress to enact it. Unpopular in the Midwest, the bill passed the House, but was defeated by a filibuster in the Senate, and most government ships were eventually scrapped.
Intervention in Latin America had been a minor campaign issue; Harding spoke against Wilson's decision to send U.
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Once Harding was sworn in, Hughes worked to improve relations with Latin American countries who were wary of the American use of the Monroe Doctrine to justify intervention; at the time of Harding's inauguration, the U. The troops stationed in Cuba to protect American interests were withdrawn in ; U. Both Hughes and Fall opposed recognition; Hughes instead sent a draft treaty to the Mexicans in Maywhich included pledges to reimburse Americans for losses in Mexico since the revolution there.
This had its effect, and by mid, Fall was less influential than he had been, lessening the resistance to recognition. The two presidents appointed commissioners to reach a deal, and the U.
When Harding took office on March 4,the nation was in the midst of a postwar economic decline. When Harding addressed the joint session the following day, he urged the reduction of income taxes raised during the waran increase in tariffs on agricultural goods to protect the American farmer, as well as more wide-ranging reforms, such as support for highways, aviation, and radio.
An act authorizing a Bureau of the Budget followed on June 10; Harding appointed Charles Dawes as bureau director with a mandate to cut expenditures.
Treasury Secretary Mellon also recommended to Congress that income tax rates be cut. He asked that the excess profits tax on corporations be abolished. The House Ways and Means Committee endorsed Mellon's proposals, but some congressmen, who wanted to raise tax rates on corporations, fought the measure. Harding was unsure what side to endorse, telling a friend, "I can't make a damn thing out of this tax problem.
I listen to one side, and they seem right, and then-God! In the Senate, the tax bill became entangled in efforts to vote World War I veterans a soldier's bonus. Frustrated by the delays, on July 12, Harding appeared before the Senate to urge it to pass the tax legislation without the bonus. It was not until November that the revenue bill finally passed, with higher rates than Mellon had proposed.
Harding had opposed payment of a bonus to veterans, arguing in his Senate address that much was already being done for them by a grateful nation, and that the bill would "break down our Treasury, from which so much is later on to be expected. A bill providing a bonus, without a means of funding it, was passed by both houses in September Harding vetoed it, and the veto was narrowly sustained.
A bonusnot payable in cash, was voted to soldiers despite Coolidge's veto in In his first annual message to CongressHarding sought the power to adjust tariff rates.
The passage of the tariff bill in the Senate, and in conference committee became a feeding frenzy of lobbyist interests. It wrought havoc in international commerce and made the repayment of war debts more difficult.
Mellon ordered a study that demonstrated historically that, as income tax rates were increased, money was driven underground or abroad. He concluded that lower rates would increase tax revenues.
Taxes were cut for lower incomes starting in The lower rates substantially increased the money flowing to the treasury. They also pushed massive deregulation and federal spending as a share of GDP fell from 6.
By latethe economy began to turn around. The misery index, which is a combination of unemployment and inflation, had its sharpest decline in U.
Libertarian historians Larry Schweikart and Michael Allen argue that, "Mellon's tax policies set the stage for the most amazing growth yet seen in America's already impressive economy. The s were a time of modernization for America. Use of electricity became increasingly common. Mass production of the motor car stimulated other industries, as well, such as highway construction, rubber, steel, and building, as hotels were erected to accommodate the tourists venturing upon the roads. This economic boost helped bring the nation out of the recession.
Harding had urged regulation of radio broadcasting in his April speech to Congress. Both Harding and Hoover realized something more than an agreement was needed, but Congress was slow to act, not imposing radio regulation until Harding also wished to promote aviation, and Hoover again took the lead, convening a national conference on commercial aviation. The discussions focused on safety matters, inspection of airplanes, and licensing of pilots. Harding again promoted legislation but nothing was done untilwhen the Air Commerce Act created the Bureau of Aeronautics within Hoover's Commerce Department.
Harding's attitude toward business was that government should aid it as much as possible. Harding warned in his opening address that no federal money would be available.
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No important legislation came as a result, though some public works projects were accelerated. Within broad limits, Harding allowed each cabinet secretary to run his department as he saw fit. This was consistent with Hoover's view that the private sector should take the lead in managing the economy. Widespread strikes marke as labor sought redress for falling wages and increased unemployment.
In April,coal miners, led by John L. Lewisstruck over wage cuts. Mining executives argued that the industry was seeing hard times; Lewis accused them of trying to break the union. As the strike became protracted, Harding offered compromise to settle it. As Harding proposed, the miners agreed to return to work, and Congress created a commission to look into their grievances.
On July 1, railroad workers went on strike. Harding proposed a settlement that made some concessions, but management objected. Wilkerson to issue a sweeping injunction to break the strike. Although there was public support for the Wilkerson injunction, Harding felt it went too far, and had Daugherty and Wilkerson amend it. The injunction succeeded in ending the strike; however, tensions remained high between railroad workers and management for years.
Bythe eight-hour day had become common in American industry. One exception was in steel millswhere workers labored through a twelve-hour workday, seven days a week. Hoover considered this practice barbaric and got Harding to convene a conference of steel manufacturers with a view to ending the system. The conference established a committee under the leadership of U. Steel chairman Elbert Garywhich in early recommended against ending the practice.
Harding sent a letter to Gary deploring the result, which was printed in the press, and public outcry caused the manufacturers to reverse themselves and standardize the eight-hour day.
Although Harding's first address to Congress called for passage of anti-lynching legislation,  he initially seemed inclined to do no more for African Americans than Republican presidents of the recent past had; he asked Cabinet officers to find places for blacks in their departments. Sinclair suggested that the fact that Harding received two-fifths of the Southern vote in led him to see political opportunity for his party in the Solid South.
On October 26,Harding gave a speech in Birmingham, Alabamato a segregated audience of 20, whites and 10, blacks. Harding, while stating that the social and racial differences between whites and blacks could not be bridged, urged equal political rights for the African American.
Many African Americans at that time voted Republican, especially in the Democratic South, and Harding stated he did not mind seeing that support end if the result was a strong two-party system in the South.
He was willing to see literacy tests for voting continue, if applied fairly to white and black. Harding had spoken out against lynching in his April speech before Congress, and supported Congressman Leonidas Dyer 's federal anti-lynching billwhich passed the House of Representatives in January Murray noted that it was hastened to its end by Harding's desire to have the ship subsidy bill considered.
With the public suspicious of immigrants, especially those who might be socialists or communistsCongress passed the Per Centum Act ofsigned by Harding on May 19,as a quick means of restricting immigration.
This would, in practice, not restrict immigration from Ireland and Germany, but would bar many Italians and eastern European Jews. Harding's Socialist opponent in the election, Eugene Debswas serving a ten-year sentence in the Atlanta Penitentiary for speaking against the war.
Wilson had refused to pardon him before leaving office. Daugherty met with Debs, and was deeply impressed. There was opposition from veterans, including the American Legionand also from Florence Harding.
The president did not feel he could release Debs until the war was officially over, but once the peace treaties were signed, commuted Debs' sentence on December 23, Harding released 23 other war opponents at the same time as Debs, and continued to review cases and release political prisoners throughout his presidency. Harding defended his prisoner releases as necessary to return the nation to normalcy. Harding appointed four justices to the Supreme Court of the United States.
When Chief Justice Edward Douglass White died in MayHarding was unsure whether to appoint former president Taft or former Utah senator George Sutherland -he had promised seats on the court to both men. After briefly considering awaiting another vacancy and appointing them both, he chose Taft as Chief Justice. Sutherland was appointed to the court into be followed by two other economic conservatives, Pierce Butler and Edward Terry Sanfor in Entering the midterm congressional election campaign, Harding and the Republicans had followed through on many of their campaign promises.
But some of the fulfilled pledges, like cutting taxes for the well-off, did not appeal to the electorate. From Republicans elected to the House inthe new 68th Congress would see that party fall to a - majority. In the Senate, the Republicans lost eight seats, and had 51 of 96 senators in the new Congress, which Harding did not survive to meet.
A month after the election, the lame-duck session of the old 67th Congress met. Harding had come to believe that his early view of the presidency-that it should propose policies, but leave whether to adopt them to Congress-was not enough, and he lobbied Congress, although in vain, to get his ship subsidy bill through. The economy was improving, and the programs of Harding's more able Cabinet members, such as Hughes, Mellon and Hoover, were showing results.
Most Republicans realized that there was no practical alternative to supporting Harding in In the first half ofHarding did two acts that were later said to indicate foreknowledge of death: he sold the Star though undertaking to remain as a contributing editor for ten years after his presidencyand made a new will.
Byhe was aware he had a heart condition. Stress caused by the presidency and by Florence Harding's ill health she had a chronic kidney condition debilitated him, and he never really recovered from an episode of influenza in January After that, Harding, an avid golfer, had difficulty completing a round. In JuneOhio Senator Willis met with Harding, but brought to the president's attention only two of the five items he intended to discuss. When asked why, Willis responded, "Warren seemed so tired.
In early JuneHarding set out on a journey, which he dubbed the "Voyage of Understanding. Harding's political advisers had given him a physically demanding schedule, even though the president had ordered it cut back.
In Denver, he spoke on Prohibition, and continued west making a series of speeches not matched by any president until Franklin Roosevelt. Harding had become a supporter of the World Courtand wanted the U. In addition to making speeches, he visited Yellowstone and Zion National Parksand dedicated a monument on the Oregon Trail at a celebration organized by venerable pioneer Ezra Meeker and others.
The first president to visit Alaska, he spent hours watching the dramatic landscapes from the deck of the Henderson. The party was to return to Seward by the Richardson Trailbut due to Harding's fatigue, it went by train. He was welcomed by the Premier of British Columbia and the Mayor of Vancouver, and spoke to a crowd of over 50, Two years after his death, a memorial to Harding was unveiled in Stanley Park. After resting for about one hour, he played the 17th and 18th holes so it would appear he had completed the round.
He was not successful in hiding his exhaustion; one reporter deemed him looking so tired that a rest of mere days would not be sufficient to refresh him. In Seattle the next day, Harding kept up his busy schedule, giving a speech to 25, people at the stadium at the University of Washington. In the final speech he gave, Harding predicted statehood for Alaska. President Harding went to bed early on the evening of July 27,a few hours after giving a speech at the University of Washington.
Later that night, he called for his physician Charles E. Sawyercomplaining of pain in the upper abdomen. Sawyer thought that it was a recurrence of a dietary upset, but Dr. Joel T. Boone suspected a heart problem. The press was told Harding had experienced an "acute gastrointestinal attack" and the President's scheduled weekend in Portland was cancelled. He felt better the next day, as the train rushed to San Francisco; they arrived on the morning of July 29 and he insisted on walking from the train to the car, which rushed him to the Palace Hotel where he suffered a relapse.
Doctors found not only that his heart was causing problems, but also that he had pneumoniaand he was confined to bed rest in his hotel room. Doctors treated him with liquid caffeine and digitalisand he seemed to improve. Hoover released Harding's foreign policy address advocating membership in the World Court, and the president was pleased that it was favorably received. By the afternoon of August 2, doctors allowed him to sit up in bed. At around pm that evening, Florence was reading him "A Calm Review of a Calm Man," a flattering article from The Saturday Evening Post ; she paused to fluff his pillows and he told her, "That's good.
Go on, read some more. She resumed reading when a few seconds later, Harding suddenly twisted convulsively and collapsed back in the bed, gasping. Florence Harding immediately called the doctors into the room, but they were unable to revive the President with stimulants; Warren G. Harding was pronounced dead a few minutes later at the age of Harding's death came as a great shock to the nation.
He was liked and admired, and both the press and public had followed his illness closely and been reassured by his apparent recovery. Nine million people lined the tracks as his body was taken from San Francisco to Washington, D. After funeral services there, the body was transported to Marion, Ohio, for burial. In Marion, Harding's body was placed on a horse-drawn hearse, which was followed by President Coolidge and Chief Justice Taftthen by Harding's widow and his father.
Harding appointed a number of friends and acquaintances to federal positions. Some served competently, such as Charles E. Sawyerthe Hardings' personal physician from Marion who attended to them in the White House.
Sawyer alerted Harding to the Veterans' Bureau scandal. Others proved ineffective in office, such as Daniel R. Crissingera Marion lawyer whom Harding made Comptroller of the Currency and later a governor of the Federal Reserve Board ; or Harding's old friend Frank Scobey, Director of the Mint, who Trani and Wilson noted "did little damage during his tenure.
Most of the scandals that have marred the reputation of Harding's administration did not emerge until after his death. The Veterans' Bureau scandal was known to Harding in January but, according to Trani and Wilson, "the president's handling of it did him little credit". Forbesto flee to Europe, though he later returned and served prison time. The president ordered Daugherty to get Smith out of Washington and removed his name from the upcoming presidential trip to Alaska.
Smith committed suicide on May 30, Hoover accompanied Harding on the Western trip and later wrote that Harding asked then what Hoover would do if he knew of some great scandal, whether to publicize it or bury it. Hoover replied that Harding should publish and get credit for integrity, and asked for details.
Harding stated that it had to do with Smith but, when Hoover enquired as to Daugherty's possible involvement, Harding refused to answer.
The scandal which has likely done the greatest damage to Harding's reputation is Teapot Dome. Like most of the administration's scandals, it came to public light after Harding's death, and he was not aware of the illegal cts. Teapot Dome involved an oil reserve in Wyoming which was one of three set aside for the use of the Navy in a national emergency. There was a longstanding argument that the reserves should be developed; Wilson's first Interior Secretary Franklin Knight Lane was an advocate of this position.
When the Harding administration took office, Interior Secretary Fall took up Lane's argument and Harding signed an executive order in May transferring the reserves from the Navy Department to Interior. This was done with the consent of Navy Secretary Edwin C. The Interior Department announced in July that Edward Doheny had been awarded a lease to drill along the edges of the Elk Hills naval reserve in California.
The announcement attracted little controversy, as the oil would have been lost to wells on adjacent private land. The Interior Department refused to provide documentation, so he secured the passage of a Senate resolution compelling disclosure. The department sent a copy of the lease granting drilling rights to Harry Sinclair 's Mammoth Oil Companyalong with a statement that there had been no competitive bidding because military preparedness was involved-Mammoth was to build oil tanks for the Navy as part of the deal.
This satisfied some people, but some conservationists, such as Gifford PinchotHarry A. Slatteryand others, pushed for a full investigation into Fall and his activities. They got Wisconsin Senator Robert M.
La Follette Sr. Walsh to lead the investigation, and Walsh read through the truckload of material provided by the Interior Department through intoincluding a letter from Harding stating that the transfer and leases had been with his knowledge and approval. Hearings into Teapot Dome began in Octobertwo months after Harding's death. Fall had left office earlier that year, and he denied receiving any money from Sinclair or Doheny; Sinclair agreed.
The following month, Walsh learned that Fall had spent lavishly on expanding and improving his New Mexico ranch. Fall reappeared and stated that the money had come as a loan from Harding's friend and The Washington Post publisher Edward B.
McLeanbut McLean denied it when he testified. Doheny told the committee that he had given Fall the money in cash as a personal loan out of regard for their past association, but Fall invoked his Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination when he was compelled to appear again, rather than answer questions. Doheny was brought to trial before a jury in April for giving the bribe that Fall had been convicted of accepting, but he was acquitted.
Harding's appointment of Harry M. Daugherty as Attorney General received more criticism than any other. Daugherty's Ohio lobbying and back-room maneuvers were not considered to qualify him for his office.
Democratic Montana Senator Burton K. Wheeler was on the investigating committee and assumed the role of prosecutor when hearings began on March 12, Caskey, to accept payoffs from alcohol bootleggers to secure either immunity from prosecution or the release of liquor from government warehouses. Coolidge requested Daugherty's resignation when the Attorney General indicated that he would not allow Wheeler's committee access to Justice Department records, and Daugherty complied on March 28, Smith and Miller received a payoff of almost half a million dollars for getting a German-owned firm, the American Metal Company, released to new U.
Records relating to that account were destroyed by Daugherty and his brother. Miller and Daugherty were indicted for defrauding the government. The first trial, in Septemberresulted in a hung jury ; at the second, early inMiller was convicted and served prison time, but the jury again hung as to Daugherty.
Though charges against Daugherty were then dropped, and he was never convicted of any offense, his refusal to take the stand in his own defense devastated what was left of his reputation. The former Attorney General remained defiant, blaming his troubles on his enemies in the labor movement and on the Communists, and wrote that he had "done nothing that prevents my looking the whole world in the face". Charles R. Forbesthe energetic director of the Veterans' Bureau, sought to consolidate control of veterans' hospitals and their construction in his bureau.
At the start of Harding's presidency, this power was vested in the Treasury Department. The politically-powerful American Legion backed Forbes and denigrated those who opposed him, like Secretary Mellon, and in AprilHarding agreed to transfer control to the Veterans' Bureau. Louis, which wanted to construct the hospitals.
The two men became close, and Mortimer paid for Forbes' travels through the West, looking at potential hospital sites for the wounded World War I veterans.
Forbes was also friendly with Charles F. Some of the money went to the bureau's chief counsel, Charles F. Intent on making more money, Forbes in November began selling valuable hospital supplies under his control in large warehouses at the Perryville Depot in Maryland.
The check on Forbes' authority at Perryville was Dr. Sawyer, Harding's physician and chairman of the Federal Hospitalization Board. Harding did not want an open scandal and allowed Forbes to flee to Europe, from where he resigned on February 15, In spite of Harding's efforts, gossip about Forbes' activities resulted in the Senate ordering an investigation two weeks later, and in mid-March, Cramer committed suicide.
Mortimer was willing to tell all, as Forbes had had an affair with his wife which also broke up the Forbes' marriage. The construction executive was the star witness at the hearings in lateafter Harding's death.
Forbes returned from Europe to testify, but convinced few, and inhe and John W. Thompson, of Thompson-Black, were tried in Chicago for conspiracy to defraud the government.
Both were convicted and sentenced to two years in prison. Forbes began to serve his sentence in ; Thompson, who had a bad heart, died that year before commencing his. Harding had an extramarital affair with Carrie Fulton Phillips of Marion, which lasted about fifteen years before ending in Letters from Harding to Phillips were discovered by Harding biographer Francis Russell in the possession of Marion attorney Donald Williamson while Russell was researching his book in Before that, the affair was not generally known.
Williamson donated the letters to the Ohio Historical Society. Some there wanted the letters destroyed to preserve what remained of Harding's reputation. A lawsuit ensued, with Harding's heirs claiming copyright over the letters. The case was ultimately settled inwith the letters donated to the Library of Congress.
They were sealed untilbut before their opening, historians used copies at Case Western Reserve University and in Russell's papers at the University of Wyoming. Coffey in his review of Harding biographies criticizes him for "obsess[ing] over Harding's sex life". The allegations of Harding's other known mistress, Nan Brittonlong remained uncertain. The book, which was dedicated to "all unwedded mothers" and "their innocent children whose fathers are usually not known to the world", was sold, like pornography, door-to-door, wrapped in brown paper.
Harding's biographers, writing while Britton's allegations remained uncertain, differed on their truth; Russell believed them unquestioningly while Dean, having reviewed Britton's papers at UCLAregarded them as umiddleburyfloralvt.comoven.
Upon his death, Harding was deeply mourned. He was called a man of peace in many European newspapers; American journalists praised him lavishly, with some describing him as having given his life for his country.
His associates were stunned by his demise; Daugherty wrote, "I can hardly write about it or allow myself to think about it yet. Harding, Our After-War President Works written in the late s helped shape Harding's historical reputation: Masks in a Pageantby William Allen Whitemocked and dismissed Harding, as did Samuel Hopkins Adams ' fictionalized account of the Harding administration, Revelry.
President Coolidge, not wishing to be further associated with his predecessor, refused to dedicate the Harding Tomb. Hoover, Coolidge's successor, was similarly reluctant, but with Coolidge in attendance presided over the dedication in By that time, with the Great Depression in full swing, Hoover was nearly as discredited as Harding.
Harding in which he called his subject "an amiable, well-meaning third-rate Mr. Best nearby. Midnight Oil Coffee House. Write a review. Traveler rating. Selected filters. All reviews beautiful campus front lawn students university arkansas visitors campuses honor faith states nation swing shade grounds. Robert L wrote a review Oct Greenville 24 contributions 4 helpful votes. Harding Univ. Its professors and administrators really care about the students, school spirit is very high, and a true Christian lifestyle is encouraged.
Read more. Date of experience: October Helpful Share. Redwing wrote a review Oct Cincinnati, Ohio 1, contributions 63 helpful votes. Beautiful Campus. While sight seeing with some friends we toured Harding. They keep it very clean. The grounds are beautiful with pretty landscaping. They have a new indoor Football practice field. The students we came across were very polite. So glad we came to see this nice University.
Holland, Ohio contributions 22 helpful votes. Nice Campus. The students are very friendly, and the grounds are always kept very nice. This is a wonderful Christian University, that helps to instill faith in young people's lives. Marion, Arkansas 84 contributions 11 helpful votes. As seasons change so does the campus - and gets larger and prettier on each visit. The front lawn alone which once was the centerpoint of campus provides a beautiful shady stroll around some very historic buildings.
Date of experience: April Michael W wrote a review Feb Searcy, Arkansas 28 contributions 1 helpful vote.